The expected impacts of the project can be summarized as follows:
- Scientific Impact. The project aims at filling multiple gaps in the literature, including the current lack of studies on: a) the definitions of CBRN events and of the wide range of possible CBRN scenarios (to be filled by outputs from Stage 1); b) the legal obligations, stemming from different areas of International and EU law, related to the different phases of a CBRN event, their interactions and their clarity and effectiveness (to be filled by outputs from Stage 2); c) the actual implementation of these obligations at the domestic level and the identification of major gaps (to be filled by outputs from Stage 3). The outcomes of research will be widely disseminated online as green access publications, submitted to international journals and collected in an edited volume. Another impact that is particularly expected from research carried out in Stage 3.2 is to strengthen the collaboration between different academic communities involved in protection from CBRN risks in Italy (including legal studies, industrial engineering, medical sciences) and between the academia and national authorities responsible for CBRN protection. This will be possible through the empirical research as well as through ancillary activities, such as the broader dissemination of the project’s outcomes (e.g. working papers, project’s reports, newsletters) and the establishment of the AB.
- Societal Impact. The increased awareness of international obligations and standards and the development of recommendations particularly targeted to the Italian context is expected to contribute to improving the CBRN preparedness framework at the domestic level. The ultimate aim is to contribute to strengthening the understanding of current CBRN risks and to propose specific measures that would enhance the opportunities to adequately respond and recover should an emergency of this type occur. This is expected to contribute to minimising potentially huge costs in terms of physical destruction and loss of human lives. As mentioned above, the research addresses the priorities and topics covered by H2020, especially those related to protecting EU citizens against major risks and strengthening disaster resilient societies. More broadly, the research is expected to contribute to the relevant UN Sustainable Development Goals, including on good health and wellbeing, on peace, justice and strong institutions, and on partnership for the goals, as well as to the key targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, including on reducing disaster damages to critical infrastructures and basic services and on ensuring the availability of MultiHazard Early Warning Systems and disaster risk information to people by 2020.
- Economic Impact. The research takes into account the economic component of CBRN protection, i.e. it is aware that there are costs necessary for prevention and preparedness and costs expected in relation to response and recover. Considering that CBRN events are low probability but potentially high impact events, which require sophisticated capabilities and equipment, the study of International and regional legal obligations is expected to enhance the understanding of duties that could be performed jointly by different actors or at the supranational level. For instance, while commenting on the EU CBRN Action Plan adopted in 2009, the European Parliament called for more efficient arrangements for the joint procurement of CBRN medical countermeasures at the European level, but it is not completely clear to what extent this recommendation has been followed. Furthermore, the study of the Italian context will lay the ground for providing recommendations on the most efficient use of resources at the domestic level. Recommendations on the domestic frameworks will take into consideration how to limit the potentially huge economic and financial impacts of a CBRN emergency in Italy.